Journal cover Journal topic
Mechanical Sciences An open-access journal for theoretical and applied mechanics

Journal metrics

  • IF value: 1.211 IF 1.211
  • IF 5-year<br/> value: 1.705 IF 5-year
  • SNIP value: indexed SNIP
  • SJR value: indexed SJR
  • IPP value: indexed IPP
  • h5-index value: 15 h5-index 15
Supported by
Logo Library of Delft University of Technology Logo NWO
Affiliated to
Logo iftomm
Mech. Sci., 3, 49-62, 2012
© Author(s) 2012. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Review article
12 Jul 2012
Review article: locomotion systems for ground mobile robots in unstructured environments
L. Bruzzone1 and G. Quaglia2 1University of Genoa, DIME, Via Opera Pia 15A, 16145 Genoa, Italy
2Politecnico di Torino, DIMEAS, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 24, 10129 Turin, Italy
Abstract. The world market of mobile robotics is expected to increase substantially in the next 20 yr, surpassing the market of industrial robotics in terms of units and sales. Important fields of application are homeland security, surveillance, demining, reconnaissance in dangerous situations, and agriculture. The design of the locomotion systems of mobile robots for unstructured environments is generally complex, particularly when they are required to move on uneven or soft terrains, or to climb obstacles. This paper sets out to analyse the state-of-the-art of locomotion mechanisms for ground mobile robots, focussing on solutions for unstructured environments, in order to help designers to select the optimal solution for specific operating requirements. The three main categories of locomotion systems (wheeled – W, tracked – T and legged – L) and the four hybrid categories that can be derived by combining these main locomotion systems are discussed with reference to maximum speed, obstacle-crossing capability, step/stair climbing capability, slope climbing capability, walking capability on soft terrains, walking capability on uneven terrains, energy efficiency, mechanical complexity, control complexity and technology readiness. The current and future trends of mobile robotics are also outlined.

Citation: Bruzzone, L. and Quaglia, G.: Review article: locomotion systems for ground mobile robots in unstructured environments, Mech. Sci., 3, 49-62,, 2012.
Publications Copernicus